The Picts used matrilineal descent, with a maternal grandson a preferred heir to a Mormaordom. The Irish Gaels introduced patrilineal elective descent to the isles starting about 400AD. After the Pictish Kings, but before 1005, The Scots crown used the gaelic agnatic-elective system, then in 1005 Malcolm II made the monarchy hereditary, and inheritable by the female line in absence of a male line.
The Agnatic-elective system was the law of tanistry, also part of the traditional gaelic Brehon laws. It was formally abolished for the clans in in Scotland by King James VI, but had been on the decline for a while, absorbing more of the Anglo-Norman ideas about primogeniture for some time. Under Tanistry, the Clan’s second-in-command and heir as Chief was determined by an election, with the candidates being all males of a specific kin group. There was the thought that the chiefship should go to the eldest and most-worthy, but differences in opinion on how this should be applied led to a few massacres in MacLeod history, notably with the succession after William of Harris, John Mac Torquil of Lewis, and Roderick of Lewis. For MacLeods, Tanistry was also complicated by the fact the Norse Hebridean society had not used the system — they used Åsædesret, an eldest child priority male-preference Gavelkind inheritance similar to Orkney’s Udal property law — so it was diluted and not as clear cut as the Irish usage of it
Prior to 1000AD, this kin group was called the Indfine, and it was a 6-generation group of all living males descended in the male-line from a common 3rd Great-Grandfather, who was the chief of his day. This was necessary, since the levels of contemporary violence often attritted the body of eligible candidates, and they wanted to be sure to have some competent ones to choose from. If all the Indfine was wiped out, the property was evenly distributed among the surviving members of the sept (Irish Clan) by Gavelkind. After 1000AD, the group was the Derbfine, a 4-generation group of males descended in the male-line from a common great-grandfather. 16th century or so, the Irish went to a Gelfine, a 3-generation group with common grandfather, but the Scots use of the system had been in decline since the imposition of feudalism after the fall of the Lordship of the Isles, and largely abandoned it for feudal hereditary succession, but modified by brothers succeeding before children.
Early application of Åsædesret/gavelkind led to the creation of the two branches of MacLeods, and the cadet branches of each. The head of the senior cadet branch was called the Toiseach, and was considered the Captain of the Clan, the military leader. Under tanistry, a Toiseach may have become the elected Tanist, but under the influence of Feudalism, this became less common, the Chief’s succession normally going to his brothers, and then their sons, and later after the end of the clan system, the estate was entailed to pass to daughters if no sons – Which is how Dame Flora became a Chief in her own right. Feudalism in Scotland was ended by the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000, with the last ‘Skat’ or Feudal taxes paid in 2004.
Dùthchas was the collective right of the clan to live in its traditionally possessed lands. Oighreachd was the concurrent concept of the inheritance of the land by the Chief as ceann-cinnidh. As the Scots crown asserted feudal authority, Kings granted charters specifying the lands of the Chief. Mismatches between the Dùthchas and the Oighreachd caused clan battles. Sometimes this was orchestrated by the crown, granting the same land to two different clans, like Trotternish on Skye to both branches of MacLeods in the 16th Century. Land was granted by the King in exchange for the military service of the clan, usually specified in size and number of boats.
The boats in question were called Galleys and Birlinns. A 1615 Privy Council Report specified a Galley as having 18-26 Oars (9-13 pairs), Length was probably 46’+, as crews were listed as 3 to an Oar, so 54-78 crew total. This would be at fighting strength, as 10 men could sail one at minimum crew complement, the rest being marine-equivalents who could row and disembark to fight on land. A Birlinn was defined as 12-18 Oars (6-9 pairs), so likely length of 25-50’. The two extant reproductions, Aileach of Clan Donald is 40’ Long, 16 oars; and Orcuan of the GallGael Foundation is 30’ long with 8 oars.
The west highland galley likely evolved from the Norse Longship Snekkja (24 Oar Tólfoeringr, 30 Oar Fimtánsessa and 40 Oar Tvitogsessa), Karfi, and Skuta class warships, and the Birlinn probably evolved from the dual-purpose byrðingr troop-carrier, fishing and cattle transport vessel.
In 1343, King David II granted Chief Torquil of Lewis Assynt’s 4 Davocs & Assynt Castle (probably about 2560 acres) for the service of a 20-oar galley, and Chief Malcolm of Harris about 2/3rds of Glenelg for the services of a 26-oar galley. A Davoc was a land measurement similar to an Ounceland (a property who’s Skat was one ounce of silver): 20 House townland + surrounding farmland of 4 ploughgates (32 oxgangs/640 acres).
In 1498, King James granted Chief Alexander Crotach of Harris, Ardmanach/Harris for the service of 26 Oar galley and two 16 Oar Birlinns. His other lands at that time were Dunvegan, Minginish, Bracadale, Duirinish, Lynedale, Glenelg, Trotternish, Sleat, N. Uist. By the 1600s, the sea-power of the chiefs was more of a threat than an asset to the crown, so in 1616 a Bond limited all Hebridean Clan Chief to one boat of 16 or 18 oars. Boats lasted about 30 years each, and seemed to cost about 20-30% of the Net annual income from associated property. In the 1600s, a Birlinn cost 200-300 Scots pounds to make. This was equivalent to a Maj/Lt Col’s monthly pay in a Scots Regiment of the time, or the market price of 300 Sheep, or 22-33 cows or horses.
Starting when glaciers covered the isles–Climate warms, glaciers recede. 11700BC Younger Dryas ice age ends, Britain becomes inhabitable again. 11000BC Land bridge to Ireland disappears. 8000BC Paleolithic Early European Modern Humans (EEMH) (aka Cro-Magnon) work their way up the coasts. 5600BC Doggerland land bridge disappears. Mesolithic happens, and we now call the EEMH the Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHG). Many are Y-DNA I2a2-M436 by this time. Settlements of this time have been found in Applecross, on the mainland right across from Isle of Raasay, and on several of the small isles.
4300BC Neolithic starts, marked by the influx from the middle east of the Early European Farmers (EEF), largely Y-DNA G2, who bring the newest trend, agriculture. People settle in villages, like Skara Brae in Orkney, Northton in Harris, and we call them the Grooved Ware people. They build lots of stone circles like Callanish on Lewis, and some chambered tombs.
2200 BC Chalcolithic/Copper Age some R1b-M269 migrants from the Eurasian Steppes show up in Europe and mix in with the locals, replacing 80-90% of the existing male lines in Europe potentially violently, or due to the plague. One of the resulting cultures, which we call the Beaker Pottery people after the most common artifact found from them, were mostly Y-DNA R-P312, many of those in Britain and Ireland L21, those in Iberia DF27.
1500 BC Bronze Age some R-DF27 sub-group L165 folks sail or paddle skin boats up to the Hebrides.
500 BC Iron Age. Caledonians and various other Celtic tribes resist Roman incursions North. By the tail end of the Iron age, the Picts “Painted People” were in charge of Northern Scotland.
300-500 AD Dalriada invasion. Gaels from Ireland displace the related Picts on the west coast of Scotland.
800 AD Viking Age, some Norwegian R1a-L176.1 (Which had split in the Neolithic from the M269 folks as R1a-M198 folks early and were called Corded Wares people) I1-M253 Norse, Swedish, R1b-U106 Danish and Frisians don’t like paying taxes to kings and first raid then settle in the Hebrides and create a Norse-Gaelic hybrid culture called the Stranger-Gaels (Gall-Gael) who live on “islands of the strangers” Innse Gall. 1150s AD R1a-FGC11917 Gall-Gael son-in-law of King Óláfr Guðrøðarson the Red, Somerled rebels, declares an independent Lordship for Suðreyar inner islands, moves culture to be more Gaelic. Skye/Skýey, Harris, Lewis/Ljóðhús remain part of Norse Crovan Dynasty Kingdom of Man.
Guy by-named Ljótr “Ugly”-Leod- somehow connected to the Crovan dynasty, might have taken over foster-father or maybe father-in-law Páll Bálkason‘s land in Glenelg, Harris and Skye when he was killed in 1231 by involuntary eunuch Guðrøðr Dond & Óspakr-Hákon. Earlier in 1230 an Ottar Snaekollson (maybe a Nicholson) and Balki Pálsson, son of that same Armadhr Páll Bálkason, killed Þórkell Þórmóðarson (A grandson of Ljótólfr)at Vestrajǫrðr (maybe Dunvegan) Skye. His son, Þórmóðr Þórkelson escaped to Applecross to fight them again in Lewis… but no one is quite sure exactly how this fits yet. 1262-1263 Scots raid Skye, Norwegian King Haakon IV comes with a big fleet. 1266 Norway gives Hebrides to Scotland. Isle of Man conquered by Scots in 1275. A “son” of Leod, Þórmóðr becomes namesake for the Harris/Skye branches (Sìol Thormoid in Gaelic). Mid 1300s, A “grandson” Þorkell kidnaps/marries the Nicolson heiress claiming the Isle of Lewis, kills anyone who opposes, and becomes namesake of MacLeods of Lewis (Sìol Torquil). Both branches of MacLeod are incorporated as Lords into the Lordship of the Isles subordinate to the MacDonalds. Scottish wars of independence 1296-1357, MacLeods probably fought at Bannockburn in 1314. 1493 Lordship of the Isles forfeited to King of Scots, everyone calls game-on for territory raids. Lots of alternate killing and marrying MacDonalds, making money dropping bodies as “Redshank” mercs in the Irish wars.
1593 – 9 Years War in Ireland, MacLeods of Lewis and Harris teamed with MacDonalds to work for the O’Neill. Sleat MacDonald Chief wants to ditch his wife, Harris MacLeod Chief Rory Mor’s sister for O’Neills daughter. Doesn’t happen, but he still leaves-and possibly beats her eye out- by 1601, causing last clan battles in War of the One-Eyed Woman. MacLeods of Lewis have massive civil war over future Chief succession, 1596 Torquil Dubh raids Coigach and Lochbroom, gives the Scots King the finger over his charter in 1597 & King James VI orders their extermination- Gentlemen of Fife can’t get it done so King gives Lewis to the Seaforth MacKenzies. 1609, Rory Mor is forced to sign the Statue of Iona which brings peace to the region but begins the slow decline of traditional Clan life. The last outlaw leader of the Lewis MacLeods, Niall, was handed over to the King for execution in 1613 by kinsman Rory Mor on pain of forfeiture but reward of a Knighthood. MacLeod of Raasay became senior agnatic line of Lewis.
1651, War of the Three Kingdoms, 500 MacLeods fight as Royalists, taking heavy casualties at Battle of Worcester. MacLeod of Assynt line dies out 1692 with another Neil, but Geanzies and Cadboll cadet lines continue.
1745 Rebellion, MacLeod of Dunvegan stays government and raises 500 men in Loyalist companies to fight at Inveruie. MacLeod of Raasay and a few dozen others side with the Jacobites and have a bad day at Culloden in 1746, and get their cattle killed and houses burned by the Dunvegan MacLeod soldiers as well. Final abolition of the Clan as a political entity in 1747.
Economic changes, unrestrained by traditional society result in unpleasantness and massive emigration. 1739-1840, Highland Clearances removed tenantry for more profitable Sheep. The Kelp fertilizer industry starts around 1764, becomes main trade of Lewis 1793, then fails in 1815. 1846-1856 Highland Potato Famine, a blight drives 16,000 tenants to Canada, western Scotland loses another 1/3 of the population. Land struggle with absentee landlords occasionally has small violent battles like in 1882 in Braes and Glendale, 1883 Warship & Royal Marines sent to subdue. 1883 Potato and Grain crop failures, more hunger and destitution. 1886 Crofting law, guarantees tenure of rent on tiny farms too small to self-sustain without doing other work like fishing-with the fish buyers usually the same landlord. WW1 the Outer Isles see about 1000 of the 6500 men die in service, one of the highest proportions in the UK.
Finally back after the 2018 MacLeod Parliament… for those who are unfamiliar, the 10 National Societies of Clan MacLeod get together under the Associate Clan MacLeod Societies (ACMS) organization every 4 years to have a world gathering in Scotland, with most activities taking place in Dunvegan on the Isle of Skye (with day trip tours to other locations on Skye and nearby, including a Raasay Day since 2010). This year also featured an optional pre-parliament tour of Harris and Lewis.
K and I opted to fly in and out of Stornoway, Isle of Lewis (SYY) based on our itinerary, but most will usually fly into Glasgow (GLA), Edinburgh (EDI), and a few into Inverness (INV). We found last time that renting a car from Glasgow airport and driving 2.5hrs up to Oban, the gateway from the isles was do-able but unpleasant, especially the A82 along Loch Lomond. By flying out to the Western Isles, we never had to drive on the mainland, and rented separate cars on the outer isles from Skye and thus did not have to worry about booking car space on the ferry (much more constrained than foot passengers). We departed Monday mid day from Austin, arriving in London Heathrow Tues morning, connecting through Glasgow, then finally arriving in the afternoon Tuesday at Stornoway Airport.
The one-room baggage claim, lounge, cafe and terminal at the Airport at Stornoway has a statue inspired by the Lewis Chessmen, Walrus Ivory chess pieces from the 12th century found on Lewis
Stornoway airport is within sight of town just under 2mi away, although the footpath to town is basically a sheep-trail next to the road – thankfully there is also a bus. However, no ATM at the SYY airport, so be sure to have a handful of one and two pound coins on hand. The driver was most displeased with my single £20 note. Rental cars are also available at the airport terminal, the ferry terminal at Stornoway, and the Ferry terminal in Harris at Tarbert. Accommodation is always in short supply in both the Western Isles and Skye, so planning ahead is critical. Most shops are closed on Sunday in the western isles, so planning food and fuel stops for a weekend is also important. Dining out also requires booking ahead of time, though the ever-helpful folks at Bangla Spice in Stornoway have never turned me away (and the less helpful Thai place next door has turned me away 3 out of 3 times without a booking…) and have tasty Bangladeshi and Indian cuisine on offer. McNeill’s is the local’s pub in Stornoway, served up an excellent pint of Guinness and we did not encounter any of the hostility from locals that some Parliament goers have occasionally had on Skye, at the Cellar Bar in Dunvegan.
Stornoway Inner Harbor
The Caladh Hotel in Stornoway was serviceable at 2 stars, and notably had virtually all cloth in the room made of Harris Tweed. We had little experience with other local places, but Cabarfeidh Hotel sports 4 stars, and Broad Bay House 5 stars if you are looking for a more upscale experience but not up to swinging a full self-cater yourself, and B&Bs proliferate at all levels of service. K and I had to skip the dinner and speeches at the first night of the pre-Parliament trip on Wednesday, as we had tickets to the first HebCelt festival concert of the season, “Between Islands 3” at An Lanntair, the local cultural center, which also provided an opportunity to grab dinner at “Steak Wednesday”, two steaks and a bottle of wine. The Between Islands series celebrates the wealth of artistic talent which exists between the three island groups of Shetland, Orkney and the Western Isles. This years concert featured music centered on the 100th anniversary of the First World War and music representing each island group. The performance featured Gaelic singers Kathleen Macinnes (South Uist), Linda Macleod (North Uist), and musicians Jenny Napier (Shetland) and Saltfishforty (Orkney).
Between Islands 3 – An Lanntair/HebCelt
We were about the only ones in the audience who did not get the jokes in Gaelic (most of it was translated by the performers to English afterwards, except for some of the banter). In the Western Isles, Gaelic comes first on all the street signs – sometimes, there is no English at all – half the population are native speakers, and some areas reach 75% fluent in Gaidhlig.
Carloway Broch – one of the best preserved examples of the Broch, a kind of Iron Age Fort
We did coach tours Thursday out to the Carloway Broch, an Iron Age fort ruin, and the Callanish Stones, a Stone Age (Neolithic) standing stones temple used through the Bronze Age by different people.
Callanish Neolithic Stone Circle, with later central Bronze Age Bell-Beaker grave
Following we had lunch with a community group trying to preserve a MacLeod connected church, just east of Stornoway right past the airport, the 14th Century (built over an earlier 7th century monk’s cell) Church of St Columba of Ui Aignish
St Columba of Ui Aignish
The church also has the gravestone of Roderick (1426-1498), 7th Chief MacLeod of Lewis (perhaps a 2nd Cousin 21 times removed from me via a Craze/Houston line connecting to potential 14th Century 22d Great-Grandfather Eoin Carrach MacDomhnaill)- they are trying to raise 7,000 pounds for parking and a visitor center, consider donating.
Roderick, 7th Chief of MacLeod of Lewis, who died in 1498, armed in typical Bascinet helmet with mail Pissane collar, Spear, Cotun (cloth or leather padded armor) and a single-handed sword of the west highland pattern hilt
We then headed down to Harris on Friday, connected by road to Lewis in the 1900s after several thousand years of existing as separate islands with mountain barriers between. We somehow got the coach down the “Golden Road” on the East side of the island – single track is common on the islands, but the “Golden Road” is especially narrow, windy, and precipitous… ending up at the late 15th Century St Clements Chapel at Rodel.
St Clement’s Chapel
This has some excellent funerary sculpture featuring the tomb of Alasdair Crotach (1450-1547), 8th Chief MacLeod of MacLeod (possibly my 6th Cousin 16 times removed through a Thornhill line to the Frasers, and even more speculatively a 5th cousin 17 times removed from a daughter of 19th GGF Torquil, 1st of Lewis through the MacKay chiefs to an Alexander/White/Alkire line), as well as one for his sons William the 9th Chief. A third one is thought to be John Og of Minginish, 2nd son of Iain a’ Chuil Bhain (John of the Fair Hair – a claimant to the 10th Chiefship supported by MacLeod of Lewis) – though since John Og of Minginish was banished by Norman, 3rd son of Alasdair Crotach and called “Iain Dubh” (John the Black), for murdering Donald, 2nd son of Alasdair Crotach and 10th or 11th Chief — there was a bit of an issue over the succession and lots of stabby-stabby between 1552-1559 — I suspect it could be a different John, the great-grandson of Alasdair Crotach, who died at 15 years old as the 14th Chief and succeeded by his uncle, Sir Ruairidh Mor, 15th Chief.
Alasdair Crotach, 8th Chief of MacLeod of Harris and Dunvegan
William, 9th Chief of MacLeod of Harris and Dunvegan
John MacLeod of Minginish
These were the first MacLeod chiefs not buried on Iona. Coming back, we stopped at Northton for a visit to the Temple Cafe (highly recommend the brownies!) and the genealogy center Sellam!. Following the good, mostly 2 lane road up the West Coast, we saw the spectacular beaches that Harris is becoming well known for: Northton (Traigh an Thaoibh Tuath), Scarista, Huisinis, Seilibost, Luskyntire.
Luskyntire Beach panoramic shot
We arrived back at Tarbert, where the group had to split into two hotels, Harris Hotel and Hotel Hebrides. There are only 3 hotels in Harris (lots of B&Bs including the victorian Amhuinnsuidhe Castle though), the third being Ardhasig Hotel, up the road north in Ardhasig. Hotel Hebrides was a very well appointed 4-star immediately adjacent to the ferry terminal, although folks with disabilities will note there are narrow stairs, and no elevator (not uncommon in Scotland).
The next day we split into two groups, one to the Harris Distillery and one to the Harris Tweed weaving demonstration, then we swapped.
Harris Distillery, future home of Whisky (it’s all still aging), but producing the excellent Harris Gin at present
Harris Tweed Weaving demonstration of the Hattersley loom
Our Saturday ferry over to Uig on Skye was uneventful, except for obtaining the rental car – turns out there is no actual rental car business presence at Uig, you need to ask the ferry terminal folks for your key.
We arrived to our self-cater at The Farmhouse, on the MacLeod estate about 4:30, to find it in a state of construction (it’s a historical 18th century property originally named Totachaire that was/is being renovated as a self-cater cottage). We were told that we should come back at the check-in time of 5… and surprisingly it appeared to be a livable house by then! We then went to the Dunvegan Village hall for Parliament Registration where we met up with our great friends Emma and Jamie (who have a typical British aristocracy impressively-massive-hyphenated surname very well known within the society), who had their son D and lurcher Cuillin along for the first time. Saturday evening finished up with Wine and Cheese reception at the Village Hall hosted by CMS England.
Sunday Morning saw us getting a tour of Dunvegan Castle with Jeroem, the current keeper of the castle (also a Dutch veteran of Afghanistan from a similar period to my in-country time) who highlighted the recent repairs and renovations to the castle funded by 30th Chief Hugh Magnus and his focus on the business of tourism. Hugh is also potentially a 19th cousin 1x removed to me via an Alkire/White line through MacDonalds and MacKays… While I am still working on my 3-4 different lines of ‘MacLeod alternate spelling’ surname ancestors, several separate lines are connected collaterally, and possibly ancestrally in one case, to founder-line MacLeods; Stranger still, this is probably also true for everyone else in the clan, it’s just less common to be able to map it out on a tree.
Dunvegan Castle, with the original pre-Leod Sea-Wall fort newly cleaned of destructive foliage
This was followed by a parade down main street of dunvegan village, and a welcome lunch catered by The Old School, a local favorite restaurant. Parliament opening was a few remarks from the ACMS president, the Lewis and Raasay chiefs, then the opening event, the “Mervyl and Stanley McLeod Trust” Lecture was also about the present renovations to Dunvegan but this time with a slide show from Jeroem. The evening finished up with a reception sponsored by CMS Scotland.
ACMS President with the Chiefs of Raasay and the Lewes, and Parliament organizer Rory MacLeod – photo credit ACMS facebook
Monday was CMS USA business meetings, and tea by CMS Canada, and more coach excursions. Most people then went on various coach tours, while K and I went to the Fairy Pools. Monday Evening finished up with a Ceilidh and dance.
Tuesday, K and I concocted a region-appropriate feast of biscuits-and-gravy and South Texas Breakfast Tacos (Chorizo and Egg, Egg and Sausage, in hand-rolled corn or flour tortillas) for about 150 folks who attended. Total parliament attendance was just over 300, but not everyone goes to everything. K and I went to the Quiraing after breakfast, the rest of folks went to the Orbost Estate to see the Emigration wall, built with stones brought to Skye from all over the world. The evening finished with a silent auction to raise funds for the next parliament, and a whisky tasting.
The path through the Quiraing is precipitous and very narrow – have to climb off the trail for folks to pass, and occasionally climb/descend with 4-5 points of contact
That night we went for dinner in Portree, where we had reservations for dinner at Scorrybreac. This new Michelin star restaurant occupies a beautiful view of the harbor, though parking is a bit of a nightmare (as it is everywhere on Skye). The restaurant is owned by an actual Hebridean, Calum Munro, son of the legendary band Runrig’s front-man Donny Munro – unlike the famous The Three Chimneys, which also lost it’s Michelin star when Micheal Smith left. The MacDonald Kinloch Lodge in Sleat (where Calum Montgomery of Scorrybreac got his start, and former owner Claire is married to the 34th Chief MacDonald of MacDonald), and Loch Bay (by Micheal Smith, formerly of Three Chimneys) on MacLeod’s terrace in Stein round out the other island Michelin restaurants. There is also Caroy House which will be a gastropub and guesthouse opening in Portree soon, also by Calum Munro and likely to score highly for good food.
Euan MacCrimmon at the Borreraig Piping School Cairn
Finally, the evening capped off with the CMS Germany’s famous Beer and Bratwurst and a bonfire out at the Castle Pier, which had been the work project for the North Room Group of Young MacLeods (age 18-30) the week prior to parliament.
Parliament group shot at Beer and Bratwurst at the Castle night – Photo credit ACMS facebook
Friday tea was hosted by “Europe”, the Swiss/Swedish/Polish/French catch all. The traditional MacLeod’s Tables climb was sparsely attended, due to the marginal weather. That night was the final event of Parliament, the Clan Ball. Parliament has begun to outgrow the Village Hall, so will be interesting to see how future events cope.
Saturday, we returned to Uig, returned the rental, and caught the ferry back to Tarbert in Harris, where we picked up a different rental for another pass at the west coast beaches before finally ending back up in Stornoway.
Sunday had bad weather, so our trip out to the west, east, and north coasts of Lewis did not get us much spectacular photography.
View out the window from Hal o’ the Wynd B&B looking out on the ferry dock in the rain
With the storm, we had already got the cancellation of our St Kilda trip scheduled for Monday and had gone out to find food in Stornoway when we got a call from Angus of Kilda Cruises about 8pm, that there had been a change in the weather, and we were to show up at the Leverburgh pier at 7am Monday to see if we could go.
Orca III rafted to Hirta opposite Leverburgh pier from Enchanted Isles
Village Bay, Hirta, St Kilda
We did, and we went, on the impressive 53′ 1500hp catamaran Orca III. I got massively seasick in the 2-4m seas, along with all other passengers but K, who had Dramamine’d a sleep resistant to retching. St Kilda is the remotest part of the British Isles, and the only dual-designation World Heritage site in the UK (US only has 1 as well). Hirta was impressive, and Boreray and the Stacs even more so. The weather was not too bad considering they register 160mph winds out here sometimes.
Boreray, St Kilda
Stac Lee, St Kilda
Stac an Armin, St Kilda
Highly recommend as a once-in-a-lifetime trip though. St Kilda was occupied for about 5000 years until 1930, when the last tenants asked to be evacuated and resettled elsewhere. During the 1745/1746 Jacobite rebellion, it was suspected BPC was hiding there, so the government sent a warship – the natives did not know who King George was, who Prince Charles was, only that the laird was the Chief of MacLeod, and his agent came every year for the rent, paid in seabird products and weaving. The walk up to the “gap” on Hirta was surprisingly difficult, and only became obvious once we looked up that Conachair (1401ft) and Oiseval (950ft) (the two north peaks of Hirta) are the highest sea-cliffs in Britain, at approximately the height of the Empire State Building – Boreray is 1260ft, Stac an Armin 643ft, and Stac Lee 564ft are the highest sea stacs in Britain.
Hirta, St Kilda – The “Gap” between Conachair and Oiseval looking out to Boreray and the Stacs
The island Soay is also part of St Kilda, and the source of the bronze age isolate Soay sheep. Boreray is now home to the Hebridean Blackface/Boreray – Iron age sheep descended from the extinct Scottish Dunface (a short-tailed norther European breed ancestral to the Shetland, North Ronaldsay, Hebridean/St Kilda, Castlemilk Moorit, and Boreray sheep), with some limited genetic introgression from Scottish Blackface in the 19th century. Most sheep in Scotland today are the long-tailed Cheviot, with some Scottish Blackface.
Soay Sheep and “Main Street” of the Village, St Kilda
The trip back was substantially easier, and we arrived back at our B&B at 8pm, with our flight from Stornoway to Edinburgh Tuesday.
We had a 24hr layover in Edinburgh from Tues mid-day till Weds mid-day, so we dropped our luggage at the Bridge Inn, and found our way via bus and tram to Princes Street, where we could walk over to the Royal Mile between the Scottish Parliament/Holyrood Palace and Edinburgh Castle.
The Tattoo was on, so the castle was closed by the time we got there – although we did run into the Royal Omani Cavalry mounted bagpipers in the street. An uneventful evening hit a few snags while trying to figure out the correct combination of bus and tram to get back to the airport in the morning, but we sorted it out eventually. Note, it is much easier if you only do accommodation on the tram route, as buses can be 1hr in between at certain times, but trams are every 5-10min…
Our flight from Edinburgh unfortunately had a miserable (British Airways and American can both improve their customer experience) 5 hour layover at JFK in NY on Wednesday, but then we flew from there back to Austin, returning to the great state of Texas very late Wednesday. If you plan on going to Parliament for the first time, we would be glad to share our lessons learned with you from our last 5 trips.
Recent changes to methods of dating DNA Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) have moved timelines for common ancestors backwards as more data comes in… but particularly troubling is the almost 2000 year discrepancy between STR and SNP dates for the presumed-founder line Y-DNA subclade R-BY3210…. so we might be back to looking at the Iron Age rather than the medieval period for the common male-line ancestor of the clan founder. It is always possible that in this case SNP dating is less accurate than STR dating, but most everywhere else including my personal experience has shown the opposite.
With more people Y-DNA NGS testing, we have an updated structure; 4 STR clusters still exist without NGS testers to assign an SNP to them however, and many of the SNPs remain undated which makes any age estimations reliant on the less accurate STR dating methods